He includes Chicame (the earlier term for Hispanized Chicano or New Mexicans of Spanish/Hispanic and Apache descent) among them as having definite Apache connections or names which the Spanish associated with the Apache.
In a detailed study of New Mexico Catholic Church records, David M.
Historically, the Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains, sheltered and watered valleys, deep canyons, deserts, and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and Chihuahua), New Mexico, West Texas, and Southern Colorado. The Apache tribes fought the invading Spanish and Mexican peoples for centuries.
The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century.
The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions.
The ultimate origin is uncertain and lost to Spanish history.
Many of the historical names of Apache groups that were recorded by non-Apache are difficult to match to modern-day tribes or their subgroups.
Over the centuries, many Spanish, French and English-speaking authors did not differentiate between Apache and other semi-nomadic non-Apache peoples who might pass through the same area.
) are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Navajo, Plains and Western Apache.
There are also Apache communities in Oklahoma, Texas, and on reservations in Arizona and New Mexico.
In addition, an Apache individual has different ways of identification with a group, such as a band or clan, as well as the larger tribe or language grouping, which can add to the difficulties in an outsider comprehending the distinctions. The different groups were located in Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma.